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lung cancer
FDA Grants Priority Review for Oral Formulation of HYCAMTIN(R) (topotecan) to Treat Relapsed Small Cell Lung Cancer
By Dross at 2007-06-15 21:25
 

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) announced today that its new drug application (NDA) for ORAL HYCAMTIN(R) (topotecan) capsules, a treatment for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC), has been granted Priority Review by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

This application was based on encouraging results from a Phase III study comparing ORAL HYCAMTIN plus best supportive care (BSC) to BSC alone in patients with relapsed SCLC, in addition to two Phase II and Phase III supporting studies. The data from the pivotal Phase III trial were published in the December 1, 2006 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.(1) BSC refers to treatments intended to control, prevent and relieve disease complications to improve comfort and quality of life for the patient, but are not intended to have any anti-tumor effects.

read more | 2408 reads

Study confirms the risk of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke outdoors
By Dross at 2007-05-04 22:12
 

Tens of thousands of Americans die each year from secondhand tobacco smoke, according to a 2006 report by the U.S. Surgeon General. While the health risks associated with indoor secondhand smoke are well documented, little research has been done on exposure to toxic tobacco fumes outdoors.

Now, Stanford University researchers have conducted the first in-depth study on how smoking affects air quality at sidewalk cafés, park benches and other outdoor locations. Writing in the May issue of the Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association (JAWMA), the Stanford team concluded that a non-smoker sitting a few feet downwind from a smoldering cigarette is likely to be exposed to substantial levels of contaminated air for brief periods of time.

read more | 870 reads

Ireland Cancer Center researchers advance lung cancer treatment
By Dross at 2007-04-24 21:31
 

Researchers at the Ireland Cancer Center of University Hospitals Case Medical Center have developed methods for treating lung cancer cells that have become resistant to new anti-cancer agents.

Led by Balazs Halmos, MD, hematologist/oncologist with the Ireland Cancer Center, the research team followed up on their previous study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which found that lung cancer cells can become resistant to novel targeted agents, such as Tarceva (erlotinib), a medication in widespread use for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tarceva is among a new generation of cancer therapies that disrupt the molecular target responsible for stimulating tumor growth. The drug targets the receptor for the epidermal growth factor protein (EGFRtermtermterm) to halt the spread of cancer cells. Clinical applications of the new drug initially yielded good results with approximately 10 percent of patients experiencing complete remission of their disease.

read more | 1336 reads

Intravenous nanoparticle gene therapy shows activity in stage IV lung cancer
By Dross at 2007-04-18 22:06
 

A cancer-suppressing gene has been successfully delivered into the tumors of stage 4 lung cancer patients via an intravenously administered lipid nanoparticle in a phase I clinical trial at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The gene, FUS1, also was found to be active in the metastaticterm non-small cell lung cancer tumors.

"We've treated 13 patients in this first-in-human study and we've seen an exciting proof of concept with no significant drug-related toxicity," says principal investigator Charles Lu, M.D., associate professor in M. D. Anderson's Department of Thoracic, Head and Neck Medical Oncology.

read more | 1279 reads

Minimally Invasive Lung Cancer Surgery Can Improve Chemotherapy Outcomes
By Dross at 2007-04-11 01:54
 

Patients who undergo a minimally invasive lung cancer surgery called thoracoscopic lobectomy may derive more benefit from the chemotherapyterm that follows, according to Duke University Medical Center researchers. These patients also have shorter hospital stays and accelerated recovery time compared with patients who have their tumors removed using the traditional surgical approach that involves opening the chest.

"This study showed that patients who had the minimally invasive operation were less likely to experience delays in receiving chemotherapy or a reduction in the amount of chemotherapy we were able to give," said Thomas D'Amico, M.D., a lung surgeon and senior investigator on the study. "Chemotherapy after surgery has been shown to improve survival in lung cancer patients, so the more effectively we deliver that chemotherapy, the better."

read more | 873 reads

PF-3512676 (CPG 7909) Non-Small-Cell-Lung Immuno-modulatory Treatment Development History
By HCat at 2007-03-17 07:11
 

    Coley Phamaceutical Group has developed oligonucleotides which contain CpG motifs (the nucleotides cytosine and guanine in repetition) that help immune responses. The oligonucleotides illicit an immune response by affecting toll-like receptor (TLR) function, with the main one being TLR9. Here is a link to a basic picture of TLR function in the immune response from the company website. The CpG motifs in bacterial DNA have been shown years ago to illicit an immune response. Here is a link to an abstract of a paper on induction of an immune response by CpG motifs from bacterial DNA.

read more | 9008 reads

One WWOX Isn't Enough (To Protect Against Cancer)
By Dross at 2007-03-16 02:38
 

A new study shows that the loss of even one of the two copies of a particular tumor-suppressor gene greatly increases the risk that lung cancer will develop in experimental animals.

The study examined the Wwox gene, a suspected tumor-suppressor gene, and showed that even when mice have one working copy of the gene, they nonetheless develop five times more lung tumors than do mice with both copies of the gene. Tumor-suppressor genes normally keep damaged cells from becoming cancerous.

The findings were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by investigators at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center.

read more | 959 reads

Blood pressure drug shows potential as lung cancer treatment
By Dross at 2007-03-15 17:23
 

A hormone that is important in the control of blood pressure also shrinks lung cancer tumors in mice, suggesting a new way to prevent or treat the deadly cancer, according to scientists at Wake Forest University School of Medicine.

Reporting in the journal Cancer Research, the scientists said that in mice treated with the hormone, angiotensin-(1-7), tumor volume decreased by 30 percent. In mice that did not receive the treatment, the tumor size more than doubled.

Patricia E. Gallagher, Ph.D., and E. Ann Tallant, Ph.D., senior researchers on the project, had previously reported a similar effect in lung cancer cells studied in the laboratory.

read more | 754 reads

Lung cancer-derived EGFR mutants exhibit intrinsic differences in inhibitor sensitivity
By Dross at 2007-03-13 22:20
 

A new study sheds light on how some small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including two that are currently being used clinically to treat cancer, interact with wild-type and mutated forms of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRtermtermterm). The research, published in the March issue of the journal Cancer Cell, published by Cell Press, may help to guide rational use of currently available EGFR inhibitors and provides new direction for the design and development of even more potent inhibitors that are tailored to specific EGFR mutants.

Many human malignancies exhibit mutated forms of the EGFR, a tyrosine kinase that plays a critical role in signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation and survival. Although the specific mechanisms are unclear, studies have shown that some EGFR mutations are associated with increased sensitivity to small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. To better understand how distinct mutant EGFRs interact with inhibitors on a structural level, Dr. Michael J. Eck from Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and colleagues studied the enzyme activity of two lung cancer-derived EGFR mutants and determined their crystal structures when bound to several different commonly used inhibitors.

read more | 2631 reads

Measuring lung motion leads to better radiation treatment for lung cancer
By Dross at 2007-03-13 22:13
 

Advances in radiation therapy for cancer have made it possible to fine-tune radiation beams so they match the shape and position of a patient's tumor nearly anywhere in the body. But the pinpoint accuracy of modern radiation treatments would be worthless if the tumor wasn't in the spot where the radiation beams were aimed.

So tumors that move, such as those in the lung — which can change position during each breath — are a special problem for radiation oncologists. A group at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has studied the way lung tissues move during breathing in hopes of improving radiation as a treatment for lung cancer.

read more | 743 reads

Lung cancer risk reduced in female textile workers exposed to endotoxin
By Dross at 2007-03-07 05:20
 

Long-term, high-level exposure to bacterial endotoxin-- a contaminant found in raw cotton fiber and cotton dust -- is associated with a 40 percent decrease in lung cancer risk among female Chinese textile workers, according to a new study in the March 7 Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Since the 1970s, studies in the U.S. and abroad have reported a lower than average risk of lung cancer for textile workers. Additionally, studies have shown that workers in other occupations with high endotoxin exposure, such as dairy farmers, have reduced lung cancer risks as well. Although many researchers thought endotoxin might be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer, no previous studies had quantified the relationship between endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk.

read more | 1486 reads

Study shows no survival benefit for CT screening for lung cancer
By Dross at 2007-03-07 05:19
 

The first report of an international study looking at computed tomography (CT) to screen current or former smokers for lung cancer found that screening did not reduce deaths from lung cancer. Although CT screening found nearly three times as many lung cancers as predicted, the researchers found that early detection and treatment did not lead to a corresponding decrease in advanced lung cancers or a reduction in deaths from lung cancer. The multi-center study, led by researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, found no advantage to using CT screening on current or former smokers -- the population at highest risk for developing lung cancer. The findings appear in the March 7 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

"Ours is the first study to ask whether detecting very small growths in the lung by CT is the same as intercepting cancers before they spread and become incurable. We found an answer and it was, 'NO'," said Peter B. Bach, M.D., M.A.P.P., a lung physician and epidemiologist at Memorial Sloan-Kettering and the study's first author. "Early detection and additional treatment did not save lives but did subject patients to invasive and possibly unnecessary treatments."

read more | 2 comments | 785 reads

Computed tomography screening may increase lung cancer diagnosis, but not decrease risk of death
By Dross at 2007-03-07 05:09
 

Screening current or former smokers with the imaging technique of computed tomography may increase the rate of diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer, but may not necessarily reduce the risk of advanced lung cancer or death from lung cancer, according to a study in the March 7 issue of JAMA.

Lung cancer accounts for 25 percent of cancer deaths and 6 percent of all deaths in the United States. Screening with chest x-rays is not effective in reducing the risk of advanced lung cancer or death, according to background information in the article. There is hope that lung cancer screening with computed tomography (CT) will be more effective at reducing deaths from lung cancer because it is more sensitive for the detection of very small nodules.

read more | 837 reads

A Breath Test for Lung Cancer?
By raja at 2007-02-27 23:59
 

A new study by a research group at the Cleveland Clinic has led to a novel way of diagnosing lung cancers. The idea for the system is similar to that of a breath-a-lyzer. Patients are asked to breathe over a a colorimetric sensor array. The array comprises a disposable membrane that has been spotted with 36 different chemicals that change color when they are exposed to certain volatile chemicals. The spots are laid out as a 6X6 matrix on a coin sized membrane over which a pump slowly passes a patient's breath over a period of 12 minutes. Cancer cells have altered metabolism which causes them to emit a different profile of volatile chemicals and this difference is what is detected by the array.

read more | 3694 reads

Phase III Study of Avastin(R) Plus Chemotherapy Shows Improved Survival
By Dross at 2007-02-23 05:23
 

 

 

Genentech, Inc. (NYSE:DNA) announced today that a Roche-sponsored Phase III study evaluating two different doses of Avastinterm(R) (bevacizumabtermterm) in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapyterm met the primary endpoint of prolonging progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with previously untreated, advanced non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common form of the disease. Both doses of Avastin (15 mg/kg or 7.5 mg/kg every three weeks) significantly improved PFS compared to chemotherapy alone, as assessed by trial investigators. Although the study was not designed to compare the Avastin doses, a similar treatment effect in PFS was observed between the two arms. No new safety signals related to Avastin were observed in the study. More than 1,000 patients from outside of the United States participated in the trial, known as AVAiL (BO17704).

"In addition to supporting Avastin's benefit in advanced lung cancer, these results demonstrate Avastin's potential when used in combination with a different chemotherapy regimen," said Hal Barron, M.D., Genentech's senior vice president, Development and chief medical officer. "We will continue to analyze these data to better understand the benefit and relative safety of each arm and these findings will be presented at an upcoming medical meeting."

read more | 9 comments | 2176 reads

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